Cordova Bay

Population

In 2001, there were a total of 415 children aged 0-4 in this neighbourhood, comprising 3.1% of the total population (15,585 people). This is lower than the proportion of young children regionally (4.4%).

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Mobility

On average, 19% of Victoria area residents - nearly one in five - changed homes in the year prior to the census. This is higher than both the BC (16.4%) and National (14.3%) mobility averages. People in Cordova Bay moved less than the regional average, with 9.6% of the total population of this neighbourhood (almost one in every ten people) changing residences in the year prior to the census.

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Implications

High levels of mobility may be stressful for families and young children. This may affect the degree to which families know their neighbours, or are familiar with the resources around them. Families in neighbourhoods with high-mobility are less likely to connect with other families for informal support and information.

In addition to being socially disruptive, this level of transience is a huge challenge for community development approaches to child development and to continuity of care for children. When children reach school age, it becomes a further challenge for educational momentum and continuity. Increasing family residential mobility has been associated with higher levels of behavioural vulnerability in middle childhood. It is reasonable to infer that the high rates of residential transience in inner city neighbourhoods complicate efforts to build social cohesion that impacts children in those areas .

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Childcare

Good quality childcare can positively influence developmental outcomes for young children whether it is provided in the home or in a child care centre.

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Access to Licensed Childcare

Cordova Bay has between 20 and 31 licensed childcare spaces per 100 children aged 0-5 (2003).

There are two out of school care facilities, one group day care facility, one preschool, and seven family childcare facilities in Cordova Bay (2005). There are no childminding or infant care facilities (2005).

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Lone Parent Families

Cordova Bay has a slightly lower proportion families (8.3% or one in twelve families) headed by a lone parent. Lone parent families face significant challenges in balancing the demands of raising children while earning a living. Children of lone parent families are more likely to be living in poverty than those from two-parent families.

In the Victoria area, the average percentage of families with children that were headed by a lone parent in 2001 was 16%. This is consistent with the provincial (15.5%) and the national (15.6%) averages. While most children from lone parent households do well, research has shown that a higher proportion of children with cognitive and behavioural problems come from such families.

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Income

A higher family income level makes the conditions for healthy child development more easily accessible. For example, access to good quality child care, nutritious food, secure housing, and community participation improves as income level rises.

The average annual household income in Cordova Bay is $83,000 and approximately one in twenty five people in the neighbourhood (4%) is living below the low income cutoff. The StatsCan Census Dictionary defines the low income cut-off as economic families or unattached individuals who spend 20% more than average on food, shelter and clothing. In 2000, nearly one in every ten families in Victoria was below the low-income cut-off (9%), compared with 13.6% of BC families, and 12.6% of Canadian families.

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Unemployment

Research has shown that neighbourhoods with high levels of unemployment can impact negatively on children's behavioural outcomes. The mean unemployment rate for the Victoria CMA was 6.6%, lower than the overall national rate of 7.4% and the provincial rate of 8.5%. The unemployment rate for Cordova Bay is between 3% and 5%.

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Education

Higher parental education is positively related to the language development of children. Studies have shown that the education level of the primary caregiver, often the mother, is of particular significance to the child's readiness for school . In Cordova Bay, 14% of adults, have not completed grade 12. This is lower than the local and provincial averages of 19-20% of persons aged 20+ who have not completed grade 12. Between 25% and 43% of adults in Cordova Bay have a bachelor's degree or higher.

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Pregnancy & Birth Information

There were 14,517 live births in the study area between 1998 and 2002. In 2001, there were 77 live births in Cordova Bay, corresponding to a live birth rate of 6-7 per 1000 population.

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Small For Gestational Age

A baby that is born small for gestational age is one that has a low birth weight after consideration for duration of the mother's pregnancy. This measure is generally more useful than looking strictly at low birth weight because there is a stronger connection to the future use of health services; babies that are small for gestational age typically have long lasting health consequences and a greater need for services than low birth weight babies (though there is some overlap between the two groups). The smallest 10% of babies at each gestational age - excluding twins and triplets - are defined as 'small for gestational age'.

There were a total of 203 infants born Small for Gestational Age (SGA) in the study area during the period 1998 to 2002, accounting for 1.4% of all live births. In Cordova Bay, less than 1% of babies born between 1998 and 2002 were SGA.

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Low Birth Weight

Low birth weight babies are those less than 2500 grams or 5.5 pounds, and are either born before 37 weeks gestation or are small for gestational age. Low birth weight is a key determinant of infant survival, health and development. Low birth weight has been linked to infant mortality, physical disability and long term health problems, including heart disease and diabetes. In Cordova Bay, 2.3 - 2.6% of babies born between 1998 and 2002 with low birth weight.

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High Birth Weight

High birth weight may increase an infant's disposition to certain chronic conditions in adulthood, including obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and breast cancer HBW is defined as infants born weighing over 4,000 grams . Between 1998 and 2002, the proportion of high birth weight babies in the study area ranged from 12% to 32%. In Cordova Bay, between 12.3 and 13.9% of infants - roughly one in eight - were born with high birth weight between 1998 and 2002.

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Proportion of Infants Born to Teenage Mothers

Throughout the study site, there were a total of 94 births to teen mothers (aged 15-19) in 2001. The proportion of births to teen mothers by neighbourhood ranges from 0% to 12.2%. The teen fertility rate in 2001 for the study area is 10 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19. In Cordova Bay in 2001, 3.8 - 6.1% of births were to teenaged mothers.

How is early childhood healthy development related to children born to teenage mothers? Research from the Canadian National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth demonstrates that the highest rates of smoking by pregnant women is among mothers in their teens and early twenties, and we know that smoking contributes to both low birth weight and small for gestational age babies. In addition to these facts, we know that smoking is modifiable and that pregnant women are generally very motivated to make such life style changes. There are other factors related to teenage motherhood, which are more difficult to modify, but are important to consider in the way a community offers support. Teen mothers are characterized by socio-economic disadvantage and interrupted education, and they are also more likely to be depressed. There is a clear pattern of improvement in childhood outcomes as childbearing age increases. Children of mothers aged 26-30 show the least vulnerability to problematic outcomes.

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Early Development Instrument Results: Cordova Bay

A total of 60 children from Cordova Bay are included in the 2003 EDI results for this neighbourhood. More than one-quarter of children in Cordova Bay are vulnerable on one or more scales of the EDI. Applied to the entire neighbourhood population of 0-4, this translates to approximately 111 vulnerable children aged 0-4 in the neighbourhood.

Table: Summary of EDI Results for Cordova Bay

Physical Social Emotional Language Communication Overall
Average score /10 8.55 8.04 7.69 7.94 7.39
% Vulnerable 6.67 10.00 13.33 6.67 8.33 26.67
Classification Buffered Medium Challenge High Challenge Buffered Buffered

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Physical Health & Well-being

Young children in the Cordova Bay neighbourhood scored in the mid-range on the physical well-being scale for the EDI. Less than one in twelve children (7%) is considered vulnerable in terms of physical health and well-being.

The average scores and the numbers of children vulnerable show this is a 'Buffered' domain -- interventions include increased emphasis on civil society and universal programs, with normal emphasis on targeted and clinical programs.

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Social Competence

Young children in Cordova Bay scored slightly lower than the average score in the domain of social competence. 8% percent of children are considered vulnerable in terms of social competence compared to both the local and provincial cutoffs. This is a 'Medium Challenge' domain for this neighbourhood.

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Emotional Maturity

Young children in Cordova Bay also scored slightly lower than the average score in the domain of emotional maturity. Over 13% of children are considered vulnerable in terms of emotional maturity. Based on the average score and the proportion of vulnerable children, this is a 'high challenge' domain. Increased emphasis would be valuable in the areas of civil society, targeted, and universal programs, with normal emphasis on clinical programs.

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Language & Cognitive Development

Again, young children in Cordova Bay scored slightly lower than the average score in the domain of language and cognitive development. Nearly 7% of children are considered vulnerable in this domain.This is a 'Buffered' domain - interventions include increased emphasis on civil society and universal programs, with normal emphasis on targeted and clinical programs.

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Communication & General Knowledge

Children in Cordova Bay have lower average scores compared to the other neighbourhoods in the domain of communication and general knowledge. One in every twelve children (8.33%) are considered vulnerable in this domain. This is a 'Buffered' domain - interventions include increased emphasis on civil society and universal programs, with normal emphasis on targeted and clinical programs

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